Typhoid: Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, and Prevention

Typhoid: Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, and Prevention

Typhoid is an contamination brought about by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. It can cause various other illnesses like diarrhea, vomiting, high fever, etc. In worse cases, it can be fatal.

What are the Causes of Typhoid?

Some of the common causes of Typhoid include:

Fecal-oral transmission route: The infection spreads through contaminated food and water from one person to another. In the fecal-oral transmission route, the fecal matter of an infected person gets in contact with the mouth of a healthy person through contaminated food or drinks. The symptoms appear after a week following exposure but sometimes show up as late as three weeks later.

Typhoid carriers: They are people who carry typhoid bacteria but do not have symptoms. Typhoid can spread from a carrier to other people if they don’t wash their hands and cook food properly. The most common symptom is a high fever that lasts for three days with one or more of the following signs.

 Risk Factors of Typhoid

Several factors may increase your risk for Typhoid. These include:

  • Living in or visiting areas with poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water
  • Traveling to countries with recent outbreaks of disease.
  • Having direct contact with the feces (stools) from someone with Typhoid
  • Having direct contact with the saliva (spit) of someone coughing up blood because of other conditions such as tuberculosis or lung cancer.
  • Living with someone who has typhoid fever.
  • Having a weak immune system.
  • Being bitten by an infected rat or cat flea
  • Having sexual contact with someone who has typhoid fever
  • Drinking water that may be contaminated with the bacterium.

What are the Symptoms of Typhoid?

Symptoms of Typhoid include:

  • High fever and chills
  • Headache, body ache, or back pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Constipation or diarrhea (sometimes containing blood)
  • Fatigue, nausea, or loss of appetite
  • Rose-colored spots on the chest and abdomen
  • Joint pain
  • Sore throat
  • Cough

It can be treated with antibiotics like ampicillin or azithromycin. You can make an online doctor appointment booking to discuss the treatment options.

What Are The Treatment Options for Typhoid?

The best cardiologist in Pune may suggest the following treatment options to address Typhoid:

1. Prescribed antibiotics:

Doctors may prescribe antibiotics such as:

  • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
  • Azithromycin (Z-Pak, Zmax)
  • Ofloxacin (Floxin), Levofloxacin(Levaquin), or Moxifloxicin.

Note – these are all antibiotics and may cause negative reactions.

2. Drinking sufficient fluid

Your doctor may recommend that you maintain good fluid intake. This will prevent dehydration, which is common with typhoid fever because of frequent urination and diarrhea.

 3. Surgery for Typhoid Fever

Surgery is a common treatment for typhoid fever, and most patients with this condition survive. Surgery may be required to repair damaged organs or drain abscesses from affected regions of the body. In some cases, surgery also helps avoid additional complications caused by the infection, such as the perforation of certain organs, which leads to life-threatening conditions.

Surgery is usually an option for patients with typhoid fever who are suffering from the following complications:

  • Perforation of the intestine or stomach
  • Intestinal blockage due to twisted bowel loops
  • Abscesses in multiple organs

 How Can Typhoid Be Prevented?

Preventing typhoid fever is simple and can be done through vaccination and following proper food safety procedures. Also, following some food safety guidelines can help prevent infections:

  • Do wash your hands daily with soap and water.
  • Only drink boiled or bottled water that has been treated for contamination by boiling at a high temperature or through other purification methods
  • Don’t eat raw fruits, vegetables, or unpeeled foods as they may be contaminated.


Typhoid fever can lead to severe complications. The most common complication is intestinal bleeding, which may cause bloody diarrhea and stomach pain. This occurs in about one of four people who get typhoid fever. If the intestine bleeding begins, this condition is called perforated or ruptured intestines (peritonitis). Therefore, it is important to get timely treatment to prevent further damage to your health. If you are experiencing Typhoid symptoms, reserve an online doctor appointment booking to receive the best treatment. Reserving such an online appointment enables you to learn about the specialists you need. For instance, you will need to consult with the best cardiologist in Pune for cardiac complications. Similarly, receive the best treatment for Typhoid from the best specialists in Pune.

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