What are the types of brain cancer in young adults?

What are the types of brain cancer in young adults?

According to the top oncologist in Hyderabad, brain cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer among young adults. In children, it is second only to leukemia. Brain cancer in young adults is most often a primary tumor in the brain rather than a metastasis from another site. In addition to this, there are more serious types of brain cancer one must be aware of. 

Common Types of Brain Cancer in young adult

Each type of cancer has a different approach to treatment. Thus, the following are the common types of brain cancer in a young adult:

  • Astrocytomas: Astrocytomas are the most common form of glioma, followed in incidence by oligodendrogliomas. AA accounts for approximately 40% of all brain cancers and AO for about 25%. In contrast to grade II astrocytoma (grade II-AA), grade III astrocytomas have a more aggressive clinical course and a lower overall 5-year survival rate. Grade III astrocytomas are also more likely to recur.
  • Gliosarcoma: Gliosarcomas are rare tumors of the glial cells. Despite their rarity, the prognosis for patients with gliosarcoma is very poor, with about a 5-year survival rate of just 15%. 
  • Germ cell tumors: Germ cell tumors account for approximately 25% of all brain cancers. 
  • Brainstem glioma: These tumors are classified as high-grade gliomas (HGG) and are often located in the brainstem. These tumors account for approximately 15% of all brain cancers diagnosed in young adults.
  • Pineal tumor: Pineal tumors account for less than 2% of all brain cancers diagnosed in young adults. The prognosis of brain tumors depends on the tumor’s type, grade, and location and its biological features such as histology, occurrence, and other pathologies.

Less Common Type of Brain Cancer that you should know:-

  • Ependymomas: Ependymomas are an uncommon type of glioma, accounting for approximately 7% of all brain cancers in young adults. These are typically located at the cervical region of the spinal cord. They may also occur at the lower thoracic level or rarely at the upper thoracic and lumbosacral levels.
  • Mixed gliomas: A mixed glioma is a tumor that contains both astrocytic and oligodendroglial components. They are common in young adults (up to age 40) and account for approximately 10% of brain cancers in this age group.
  • Mixed gliomas are graded on a scale from I to IV based upon histological and immunohistochemical parameters.
  • Primitive neuroectodermal tumors: These tumors account for less than 1% of brain cancers diagnosed in young adults. They are structurally neuroectodermal neoplasms and are typically located around the base of the brain in the dura mater.

Differences between Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Cancers

Primary brain cancers are usually localized to one hemisphere (left or right), whereas central nervous system (CNS) cancers may involve both hemispheres and spread throughout the CNS. 

Primary brain tumors can be classified into four main types: glioma, germ cell tumor, craniopharyngioma, and pineal tumor. It is important to know each type of tumor can spread at different stages. Therefore, make sure to consult the best oncologist in Hyderabad for the same. 

Gliomas are two major classifications for primary tumors in the brain – these include grade I and II anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) and grade III anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO). The terminologies of various brain tumors can be very difficult to remember. 

However, as a patient, you must keep yourself informed. Besides, primary brain cancer and central nervous system cancer may appear similar. However, they are different. 

Conclusion:-

Brain cancer in young adults is a rare but lethal disease. Treatment of brain cancer in young adults is challenging. Success depends on the tumor’s type, grade, location, and biological features such as histology and other pathologies. 

As we know, various types of brain cancer need different treatments. For this, the cancer hospitals in Hyderabad are a one-stop solution. Besides, the best oncologist in Hyderabad is available at Credihealth for online consultation.

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